Maven 使用 archetype(原型) 来创建自定义的项目结构,形成 Maven 项目模板。

在前面章节我们学到 Maven 使用下面的命令来快速创建 java 项目:

mvn archetype:generate

什么是 archetype?

archetype 也就是原型,是一个 Maven 插件,准确说是一个项目模板,它的任务是根据模板创建一个项目结构。我们将使用 quickstart 原型插件创建一个简单的 java 应用程序。


使用项目模板

让我们打开命令控制台,跳转到 C:\> MVN 目录并执行以下 mvn 命令:

C:\MVN> mvn archetype:generate 

Maven 将开始处理,并要求选择所需的原型:

[INFO] Scanning for projects...
[INFO] Searching repository for plugin with prefix: 'archetype'.
[INFO] -------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] Building Maven Default Project
[INFO]task-segment: [archetype:generate] (aggregator-style)
[INFO] -------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] Preparing archetype:generate
...
600: remote -> org.trailsframework:trails-archetype (-)
601: remote -> org.trailsframework:trails-secure-archetype (-)
602: remote -> org.tynamo:tynamo-archetype (-)
603: remote -> org.wicketstuff.scala:wicket-scala-archetype (-)
604: remote -> org.wicketstuff.scala:wicketstuff-scala-archetype 
Basic setup for a project that combines Scala and Wicket,
depending on the Wicket-Scala project. 
Includes an example Specs test.)
605: remote -> org.wikbook:wikbook.archetype (-)
606: remote -> org.xaloon.archetype:xaloon-archetype-wicket-jpa-glassfish (-)
607: remote -> org.xaloon.archetype:xaloon-archetype-wicket-jpa-spring (-)
608: remote -> org.xwiki.commons:xwiki-commons-component-archetype 
(Make it easy to create a maven project for creating XWiki Components.)
609: remote -> org.xwiki.rendering:xwiki-rendering-archetype-macro 
(Make it easy to create a maven project for creating XWiki Rendering Macros.)
610: remote -> org.zkoss:zk-archetype-component (The ZK Component archetype)
611: remote -> org.zkoss:zk-archetype-webapp (The ZK wepapp archetype)
612: remote -> ru.circumflex:circumflex-archetype (-)
613: remote -> se.vgregion.javg.maven.archetypes:javg-minimal-archetype (-)
614: remote -> sk.seges.sesam:sesam-annotation-archetype (-)
Choose a number or apply filter 
(format: [groupId:]artifactId, case sensitive contains): 203:

按下 Enter 选择默认选项 (203:maven-archetype-quickstart)。


Maven 将询问原型的版本

Choose org.apache.maven.archetypes:maven-archetype-quickstart version:
1: 1.0-alpha-1
2: 1.0-alpha-2
3: 1.0-alpha-3
4: 1.0-alpha-4
5: 1.0
6: 1.1
Choose a number: 6:

按下 Enter 选择默认选项 (6:maven-archetype-quickstart:1.1)

Maven 将询问项目细节。按要求输入项目细节。如果要使用默认值则直接按 Enter 键。你也可以输入自己的值。

Define value for property 'groupId': : com.companyname.insurance
Define value for property 'artifactId': : health
Define value for property 'version': 1.0-SNAPSHOT
Define value for property 'package': com.companyname.insurance

Maven 将要求确认项目细节,按 Enter 或按 Y

Confirm properties configuration:
groupId: com.companyname.insurance
artifactId: health
version: 1.0-SNAPSHOT
package: com.companyname.insurance
Y:

现在 Maven 将开始创建项目结构,显示如下:

[INFO] -----------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] Using following parameters for creating project 
from Old (1.x) Archetype: maven-archetype-quickstart:1.1
[INFO] -----------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] Parameter: groupId, Value: com.companyname.insurance
[INFO] Parameter: packageName, Value: com.companyname.insurance
[INFO] Parameter: package, Value: com.companyname.insurance
[INFO] Parameter: artifactId, Value: health
[INFO] Parameter: basedir, Value: C:\MVN
[INFO] Parameter: version, Value: 1.0-SNAPSHOT
[INFO] project created from Old (1.x) Archetype in dir: C:\MVN\health
[INFO] -----------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] BUILD SUCCESSFUL
[INFO] -----------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] Total time: 4 minutes 12 seconds
[INFO] Finished at: Fri Jul 13 11:10:12 IST 2012
[INFO] Final Memory: 20M/90M
[INFO] -----------------------------------------------------------------------

创建的项目

现在转到 C:\ > MVN 目录。你会看到一个名为 health 的 java 应用程序项目,就像在项目创建的时候建立的 artifactId 名称一样。 Maven 将创建一个有标准目录布局的项目,如下所示:


创建 pom.xml

Maven 为项目自动生成一个 pom.xml文件,如下所示:

<project xmlns=http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 xmlns:xsi=http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation=http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd> <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion> <groupId>com.companyname.insurance</groupId> <artifactId>health</artifactId> <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version> <packaging>jar</packaging> <name>health</name> <url>http://maven.apache.org</url> <properties> <project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding> </properties> <dependencies> <dependency> <groupId>junit</groupId> <artifactId>junit</artifactId> <version>3.8.1</version> <scope>test</scope> </dependency> </dependencies> </project>

App.java

Maven 会自动生成一个测试的 java 文件 App.java。

路径:C:\MVN\consumerBanking\src\main\java\com\companyname\bank

package com.companyname.insurance; /** * Hello world! * */ public class App { public static void main( String[] args ) { System.out.println( Hello World! ); } }

AppTest.java

Maven 会自动生成一个 java 文件 AppTest.java。

路径为: C:\MVN\consumerBanking\src\test\java\com\companyname\bank

package com.companyname.insurance; import junit.framework.Test; import junit.framework.TestCase; import junit.framework.TestSuite; /** * Unit test for simple App. */ public class AppTest extends TestCase { /** * Create the test case * * @param testName name of the test case */ public AppTest( String testName ) { super( testName ); } /** * @return the suite of tests being tested */ public static Test suite() { return new TestSuite( AppTest.class ); } /** * Rigourous Test :-) */ public void testApp() { assertTrue( true ); } }

就这样。现在你可以看到 Maven 的强大之处。你可以用 maven 简单的命令创建任何类型的项目,并且可以启动您的开发。